Wolfram Alpha:
Search by keyword:
Astronomy
Chemistry
Classical Physics
Climate Change
Cosmology
Finance and Accounting
Game Theory
General Relativity
Group Theory
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Mechanics
Macroeconomics
Mathematics
Microeconomics
Nuclear Physics
Particle Physics
Probability and Statistics
Programming and Computer Science
Quantum Computing
Quantum Field Theory
Quantum Mechanics
Semiconductor Reliability
Solid State Electronics
Special Relativity
Statistical Mechanics
String Theory
Superconductivity
Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theory (GUT)
The Standard Model
Topology
Units, Constants and Useful Formulas
Cosmic Background Radiation and Decoupling
------------------------------------------
Photons get scattered in a plasma (the reason we can't see through
the sun). When looking into space the further the distance the further
back in time we see and the higher the temperature. Eventually, we
get to point where temperature is high enough for ionization (~3000K)
and the universe becomes opaque. This is the SURFACE OF LEAST
SCATTERING. The reason why we don't see this glow in the sky is that
the boundary is moving very fast and the waves are red shifted to the
point where their energy and temperature are very low (~3K). What
we see is the COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION. This is the radiation
from the SLS.
Image courtesy of Wikipedia.
I = E_{V}= (8πh/c^{3})(ν^{3}/e^{hν/kT} - 1) ... 1.
where I is the Intensity per frequency and E_{V} is the energy per
unit volume per frequency (I = Power/A = E/AΔt = E/V).
The radiation has a blackbody spectrum. The peak is at λ ~ hc/k_{B}T
The temperature and density variation of the CMB (δT/T and δρ/ρ)
is approximately equal to 10^{-5}.
Decoupling Temperature and Time
-------------------------------
Prior to the time of decouping, highly energetic photons prevented
electrons and protons from forming neutral atoms of Hydrogen (and
subsequently Helium). This can be represented by:
H + γ <--> p + e
As the universe cooled, the photons no longer had enough energy
to cause ionization, and neutral atoms started to form. This
caused a rapid reduction of free electrons and photons no longer
were scattered. The result is that the very first elements are
formed and, in the process, the universe becomes transparent.
This process is referred to as DECOUPLING. The question is at
what temperature and time did this occur?
From Plancks law, the photon number density is found by dividing
equation 1. by the energy, hν, and integrating from 0 to ∞.
Thus,
n_{γ} = (8π/c^{3})∫(ν^{2}/e^{hν/kT} - 1)dν
This is a tricky integral to solve so we shall just state the
result:
n_{γ} = 0.243(k_{B}T/hc)^{3} ... 2.
To get the total energy density we integrate equation 1. from 0
to ∞.
I = (8πh/c^{3})∫(ν^{3}/e^{hν/kT} - 1)dν
This is another tricky integral that yields:
E_{Total} = (π^{2}/15)(k_{B}T)^{4}/(hc)^{3}
= 0.658(k_{B}T)^{4}/(hc)^{3} ... 3.
This can also be written as:
E_{Total} = αT^{4} = 4σ/c where α is the radiation constant and σ is
Stephan's constant.
Dividing equation 3. by equation 2. gives the energy of a photon from
the CMB:
E_{γ} ~ 2.7k_{B}T
We next consider the SAHA equation which describes the degree of
ionization of a plasma as a function of the temperature, density,
and ionization energies of the atoms. The Saha equation follows
directly from the Boltzmann distribution.
(1 - X)/X = n_{p}(k_{B}Tm_{e}/2πh^{2})^{-3/2}exp(Q/k_{B}T)
Where X = n_{p}/(n_{p} + n_{H}) = n_{e}/(n_{p} + n_{H}) due to charge neutrality.
When X = 1 the gas is fully ionized. When X = 0 the gas is neutral.
We can also write:
n_{H} = (X - 1)n_{p}/X
Now define the baryon to photon ratio, η:
η = n_{B}/n_{γ} = n_{p}/Xn_{γ} (from n_{p}/[n_{γ}n_{p}/(n_{p} + n_{H})] = n_{B}/n_{γ})
∴ n_{p} = ηXn_{γ}
Substituting into equation 2. gives:
n_{p} = 0.243ηX(k_{B}T/hc)^{3}
According to present observational measurements of the baryonic
density, Ω_{m,0} from the CMB, n_{γ} is approximately equal to 1.7 x 10^{9}.
The Saha equation becomes:
(1 - X)/X = 0.243ηX(k_{B}T/hc)^{3}(k_{B}Tm_{e}/2πh^{2})^{-3/2}exp(Q/k_{B}T)
Which simplifies to:
(1 - X)/X^{2} ~ 3.84η(k_{B}T/m_{e}c^{2})^{3/2}exp(Q/k_{B}T)
If we assume X = 0.5 and Q for Hydrogen to be 13.6 eV (2.2 x 10^{-18} J)
and solve for T we get that the temperature at the time of decoupling
was about 3000K.
Now consider the equation for redshift:
z + 1 = T_{E}/T_{T} = a_{T}/a_{E} = λ_{T}/λ_{E} = ρ_{E}/ρ_{T} = t_{T}^{2/3}/t_{E}^{2/3}
where T = Today, E = Emitted and D = Detected
T_{T} = 2.7 K ... the temperature of the CMB.
T_{E} ~ 3000 K
For the mass dominated period when decoupling occurred, we can write:
z + 1 = T_{E}/T_{T} = 1100 = t_{T}^{2/3}t_{E}^{2/3}
∴ z + 1 = t_{T}/t_{E} = 1100^{3/2} ~ 37,000
∴ t_{E} ~ 365,000 years if the universe is about 13.5 x 10^{9} years old.
Therefore, decoupling occurred about 350,000 years after the Big Bang.