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Units, Constants and Useful Formulas
Lorentz Invariance

A quantity that remains unchanged by a Lorentz transformation
is said to be Lorentz invariant. This implies that the laws
of physics are independent of the orientation or the boost
velocity of the reference frame through space. Lorentz
invariance is achieved if the laws pf physics are cast in
terms of 4vector dot products. Let's see this for a
rotation of cartesian axes.
If we rotate a set of cartesian axes so that x > x' and
y > y' then from Pythagoras we can show that for any given
point x'^{2} + y'^{2} = x^{2} + y^{2}. The quantity x^{2} + y^{2} is invariant
under the rotation.
For spacetime under a Lorentz transformation (t  > t' and
x > x') the invariant quantity is instead given by:
x'^{2} + y'^{2} + z'^{2} t'^{2} = x^{2} + y^{2} + z^{2}  t^{2}
Proof:
We will consider only one spacial dimension and perform a
Lorentz transformation of the 2vector (t,x)  ordinarily
it would be a 4vector:
X = γ(x  vt)
T = γ(t  vx/c^{2})
Put c = 1 for simplicity, γ = 1/√(1  v^{2})
dτ^{2} = dT^{2} + dX^{2}
= γ^{2}(t  vx)^{2} + γ^{2}(x  vt)^{2}
= γ^{2}{t^{2}  2xvt + v^{2}x^{2}} + γ^{2}{x^{2}  2xvt + v^{2}t^{2}}
= γ^{2}{t^{2}  2xvt + v^{2}x^{2}  x^{2} + 2xvt  v^{2}t^{2}}
= γ^{2}{(1  v^{2})t^{2} + (v^{2}  1)x^{2}}
= γ^{2}{(1  v^{2})t^{2}  (1  v^{2})x^{2}}
= dt^{2} + dx^{2}
dτ^{2} = dt^{2} + (dx/c)^{2}  the invariant interval
t
 /
 / < not necessarily linear
 / dt
 / 
 /dx
 /


 x
Construct the invariant interval dτ^{2} by taking the dot
product of the covariant and contravariant components of
a 4vector. A 4vector by itself is not invariant under
a Lorentz transformation.
dx^{μ} = (dx^{0},dx^{1},dx^{2},dx^{3})  contravariant
dx_{μ} = (dx_{0},dx_{1},dx_{2},dx_{3})  covariant
dτ^{2} = Σdx_{μ}dx^{μ}
= dx_{μ}dx^{μ}
= dx_{0}dx^{0} + dx_{1}dx^{1} + dx_{2}dx^{2} + dx_{3}dx^{3}
= (dt)^{2} + (dx)^{2} + (dy)^{2} + (dz)^{2}
The result is invariant under rotations in space and a
Lorentz transformation. This can also be written as:
dτ^{2} = dx_{μ}dx^{μ} = η_{μν}dx^{μ}dx^{ν} where η_{μν} is the MINKOWSKI METRIC.
 
_{ } 1 0 0 0 
η_{μν} =  0 1 0 0 
_{ }  0 0 1 0 
_{ }  0 0 0 1 
 
Note the timecoordinate has different sign than the
space coordinates. This means that in fourdimensional
spacetime, one coordinate is different from the others
and influences the distance differently. This simple
change of sign leads to completely new hyperbolic
geometry that is different from conventional Euclidean
geometry.
In GR the Minkowski Metric is replaced by the METRIC
TENSOR, g_{rs}, where,
g_{rs} = δ_{mn}(∂x^{m}/∂y^{r})(∂x^{n}/∂y^{s})
so
(ds)^{2} = g_{rs}dx^{r}dx^{s}
4velocity

u_{μ}u^{μ} = γ^{2}(c^{2}  v^{2})
= γ^{2}c^{2}(1  v^{2}/c^{2})
= c^{2}
Thus, the velocity of light is invariant under a Lorentz
transform.